药学学报, 2012, 47(10): 1281-1286
引用本文:
朱 磊, 张大鹏. 天然小分子抗体研究进展[J]. 药学学报, 2012, 47(10): 1281-1286.
ZHU Lei, ZHANG Da-peng. Advances in the study of natural small molecular antibody[J]. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, 2012, 47(10): 1281-1286.

天然小分子抗体研究进展
朱  磊1, 张大鹏1, 2*
(1. 第二军医大学肿瘤研究所, 上海 200433; 2. 上海抗体药物国家工程研究中心, 上海 201203)
摘要:

与传统意义上的由两条重链和两条轻链组成的单体抗体不同, 天然小分子抗体是指在自然界中存在的一些奇特的小分子抗体, 它们分子量比较小, 有的仅由重链组成, 有的仅由轻链组成。在骆驼体内发现的仅由重链组成的抗体可以发挥正常的生物学功能, 克隆其可变区即获得具有抗原结合能力的纳米抗体 (Nanobody)。鲨鱼体内也存在一种由重链同源二聚体组成的非典型抗体IgNAR。另外, 在人体内也存在游离的轻链抗体 (FLC), 在疾病的发生诊断中具有重要意义。本文综述了NanobodyIgNARFLC的结构特点与作用机制。

关键词:   
Advances in the study of natural small molecular antibody
Abstract:

Small molecule antibodies are naturally existed and well functioned but not structurally related to the conventional antibodies.  They are only composed of heavy protein chains or light chains, much smaller than common antibody.  The first small molecule antibody, called Nanobody was engineered from heavy-chain antibodies found in camelids.  Cartilaginous fishes also have heavy-chain antibodies (IgNAR, “immunoglobulin new antigen receptor”), from which single-domain antibodies called VNAR fragments can be obtained.  In addition, free light chain (FLC) antibodies in human bodies are being developed as therapeutic and diagnostic agents.  Comparing to intact antibodies, common advantages of small molecule antibodies are with better solubility, tissue penetration, stability towards heat and enzymes, and comparatively low production costs.  This article reviews the structural characteristics and mechanism of action of the Nanobody, IgNAR and FLC.

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