Reviews
Xu Wu, Wei Hu, Lan Lu, Yueshui Zhao, Yejiang Zhou, Zhangang Xiao, Lin Zhang, Hanyu Zhang, Xiaobing Li, Wanping Li, Shengpeng Wang, Chi Hin Cho, Jing Shen, Mingxing Li. Repurposing vitamin D for treatment of human malignancies via targeting tumor microenvironment[J]. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B, 2019, 9(2): 203-219

Repurposing vitamin D for treatment of human malignancies via targeting tumor microenvironment
Xu Wua, Wei Hub, Lan Luc, Yueshui Zhaoa, Yejiang Zhoud, Zhangang Xiaoa, Lin Zhanga,e, Hanyu Zhanga, Xiaobing Lia, Wanping Lia, Shengpeng Wangf, Chi Hin Choa, Jing Shena, Mingxing Lia
a Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China;
b Department of Gastroenterology, Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen 518000, China;
c Sichuan Industrial Institute of Antibiotics, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China;
d Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China;
e Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China;
f State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, China
Abstract:
Tumor cells along with a small proportion of cancer stem cells exist in a stromal microenvironment consisting of vasculature, cancer-associated fibroblasts, immune cells and extracellular components. Recent epidemiological and clinical studies strongly support that vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduced cancer risk and favorable prognosis. Experimental results suggest that vitamin D not only suppresses cancer cells, but also regulates tumor microenvironment to facilitate tumor repression. In this review, we have outlined the current knowledge on epidemiological studies and clinical trials of vitamin D. Notably, we summarized and discussed the anticancer action of vitamin D in cancer cells, cancer stem cells and stroma cells in tumor microenvironment, providing a better understanding of the role of vitamin D in cancer. We presently re-propose vitamin D to be a novel and economical anticancer agent.
Key words:    Vitamin D    1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3    Tumor microenvironment    Cancer stem cell    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte    Tumor-derived endothelial cell    Cancer-associated fibroblast   
Received: 2018-05-11     Revised: 2018-07-04
DOI: 10.1016/j.apsb.2018.09.002
Funds: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.81770562,81602166 and 81703807) and grants from the Science and Technology Planning Project of Luzhou,Sichuan Province,China (Nos.2016LZXNYD-Z04 and 2017LZXNYD-J02).
Corresponding author: Jing Shen, Mingxing Li     Email:crystal_stray@126.com;star.lee@hotmail.com
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Xu Wu
Wei Hu
Lan Lu
Yueshui Zhao
Yejiang Zhou
Zhangang Xiao
Lin Zhang
Hanyu Zhang
Xiaobing Li
Wanping Li
Shengpeng Wang
Chi Hin Cho
Jing Shen
Mingxing Li

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